Review of the article, ‘Amelogenin peptide analyses reveal female leadership in Copper Age Iberia (c. 2900–2650 BC)’

3 min readJul 14

In this post, a review will be attempted of the article, ‘Amelogenin peptide analyses reveal female leadership in Copper Age Iberia (c. 2900–2650 BC)’.

According to that article, and as the title holds, by using amelogenin peptide analyses, scientists have managed to reveal the presence of elements of female leadership in Copper Age Iberia.

In fact, they managed to reveal the presence of a prominent female figure dating back to that age, who was wrongly believed to be a male figure, and by using amelogenin markers for sex determination, they showed that the original assumption about the figure’s sex was wrong.


Overall, the researchers who were involved in writing and publishing the article in question have followed research procedures, methods, and evidence that seem to be scientifically sound, thus leading to equal sound results.

Therefore, it looks like, in Copper Age Iberia (c. 2900–2650 BC), a leading female figure lived indeed in that area, which serves as evidence of the presence of female leadership during that period.

However, there could be some questions to be raised, and which need to be addressed, in order to be able to further solidify the results.

First of all, although amelogenin is highly valuable in serving as a marker to determine sex in humans, this method is not 100% accurate.

There are various factors that affect its accuracy, and the results obtained in different populations are characterized by big discrepancies.

According to research conducted by Hirak R. Dash, Neha Rawat & Surajit Das, the “ Presence of PCR inhibitors, degradation in the DNA samples and presence of mixed DNA also contribute to the discrepancy in results obtained by amelogenin analysis “.

In this case, it could be a “ … degradation in the DNA samples… “ that could be responsible for discrepancy in results obtained.

According to information provided on the official website of Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., various reasons can cause DNA degradation, with one of these reasons being associated with the use of very old DNA samples.

When using DNA that dates as back as 2,900–2,650 BC, it would be well-justified to assume that…